Molten Salt Nuclear Reactors have a very high negative temperature coefficient leading to a safe and stable control. This is another beauty of the molten salt design. The temperature coefficient is highly negative, leading to a safe design enabling simple and consistent feedback. What does that mean? It means that when the temperature of the fissile core rises, the efficiency of the reaction goes down, leading to less heat generated. There is no risk for a thermal runaway. In contrast, graphite moderated generators can have a positive temperature coefficient which leads to complicated control, necessitating many safety circuits to ensure proper startup, operation and shutdown. Their worst failure mode is they go prompt critical, and no containment vessel can contain the explosion that would occur, so they were built without one. There have been several major accidents in graphite moderated reactors, with the Windscale fire and the Chernobyl disaster probably the best known.
President Donald Trump ripped the “Fake News” media on Tuesday for not reporting that the U.S. has the lowest COVID-19 mortality rate in the world.
“We have the lowest Mortality Rate in the World,” Trump wrote. “The Fake News should be reporting these most important of facts, but they don’t!”
His press secretary Kayleigh McEnany in her press briefing posted this chart to boost his claim.
The article covers a Monday White House press conference. McEnany told reporters that the American death toll has fallen for weeks and the virus fatality rate is below France, the United Kingdom and Germany.
She said the death toll has significantly dropped from the height of the outbreak when the U.S. logged 2,500 deaths per day to 254 deaths on Saturday, according to the article.
To confirm it the case fatality rate for Germany is as of July 7: 4.59%
The corresponding number for U.S.A.: 4.33%
Is that the lowest percentage in the world?
There are more than ten countries with a lower case fatality rate. At least ten of them have one thing in common. These ten countries prescribe the use of HydroxyChloroQuine to all people that show symptoms of COVID-19, even before a positive test is confirmed.
South Korea: 2.15%
United Arab Emirates: 0.62%
Costa Rica: 0.42%
Qatar: 0.13%, but since 88% of the population are migrant workers between 20 and 60, the adjusted death rate for the permanent residents would be maybe 8 times higher, or about 1%
The total number of positive cases for these ten countries are over 1.2 million, far more than any double blind test could ever produce.
Taking the average, adjusted for the number of positive cases, the average adjusted death rate for ten countries, where people are taking HCQ + Zinc as soon as they are showing symptoms or diagnosed positive, is 1.51%.
This means that the risk of death is reduced by a factor of 2.8 if HZQ + Zinc is taken as early as possible after showing symptoms or after a positive diagnosis for corona-virus!
With Molten Salt nuclear Reactors there is no risk for a meltdown, the fuel is already molten, and that is a safe design. The fissile fuel in a Thorium reactor is U-233 in the form of UraniumFluoride (UF4) salt which also contains Lithium and Beryllium to lower the melting point, the operating temperature is around 700C. In its molten form the salt has a very low vapor pressure. The salt flows easily through the heat exchangers and the separators. The salt is very toxic, but since it is completely sealed it is not corrosive. Being a fluid, it is constantly mixed for optimum efficiency. The reactor will never have to be shut down for refueling, it is a continuous flow process. Uranium-235 Nuclear reactors on the other hand have to be shut down for refueling and rebalancing of the fuel rods a little more often than once every two years. The average shutdown is 35 days, or about 5% of the time. Then comes the major problem of safely and securely transporting and reprocessing the spent fuel. In a LFTR the fuel is spent as it is produced, so the fissile inventory is constantly kept at a minimum, and fission products and extra generated U-233 is separated out. this is a much cleaner process than reprocessing spent fuel.
Molten Salt Thorium Reactors are earthquake safe. Thorium reactors have a very simple and compact design where gravity is the only thing needed to stop the nuclear reaction. Conventional nuclear reactors depend on external power to shut down after a SCRAM, where poison rods fall down to halt the reaction. The next figure shows the concept of a Thorium reactor.
The idea is to empty the fissile U-233 core through gravity alone. All that is needed is a melt-plug that is constantly cooled by cold air. In an earthquake or complete electric failure the cold air flow automatically shuts off, and since the fuel is already molten, it will melt the plug, and the molten fluid will run down into channels like pig-iron into heat exchangers that absorb the residual heat.
As we can see the reactor hardened structure is compact, and can be completely earthquake and tsunami proof. What can be sheared off are the steam pipes and external power, but even then the reactor shutdown will be complete safe without any additional power.
For decades, medical researchers have sought treatments for cancer. Now, Alpha Particle Immunotherapy offers a promising treatment for many forms of cancer, and perhaps a cure. Unfortunately, the most promising alpha-emitting medical isotopes, actinium-225 and its daughter, bismuth-213, are not available in sufficient quantity to support current research, much less therapeutic use. In fact, there are only three sources in the world that largely “milk” these isotopes from less than 2 grams of thorium source material. Additional supplies were not forthcoming. Fortunately, scientists and engineers at Idaho National Laboratory identified 40-year-old reactor fuel stored at the lab as a substantial untapped resource and developed Medical Actinium for Therapeutic Treatment, or MATT, which consists of two innovative processes (MATT-CAR and MATT-BAR) to recover this valuable medical isotope.
Thorium based Nuclear Power does not produce much Plutonium-239, which is the preferred material used in nuclear bombs. The higher Plutonium isotopes and other TRansUraniums are about as nasty as they get, need expensive protection against terror attacks, and need to be stored for a very long time.
One anecdote from my youth. The time had come to apply to University, and to my delight I was accepted to Chalmers’ University in Sweden as a Technical Physics major. I felt, maybe I can do my part by becoming a Nuclear Engineer and help solve the energy needs of the future. The Swedes at that time championed the heavy water – natural Uranium program together with the Canadians. Sweden is a non-aligned country, so it was not privy to any atomic secrets, it had to go it alone. They settled on the heavy water moderated natural Uranium process because Sweden had an ambition to produce its own nuclear bomb. Officially this was never talked about, and I was not aware of it at that time. They could have gone with Thorium instead, but a Thorium based nuclear reactor produces very little Plutonium, and what it produces is nearly all Pplutonium-238, not fissile and as such not suitable for bomb making.
I was excited to learn about all the possibilities and signed up for a couple of nuclear classes. One lab was to design a safety circuit, then run the heavy water research reactor critical and hopefully watch the reactor shut down from the safety circuit before the system safety circuit shutdown. About that time the word came that U.S. will sell partially enriched uranium at bargain basement prices if Sweden agreed to abandon the heavy water project and sign the nuclear non-proliferation treaty, a treaty being formulated by U.N.
Sweden was in awe about U.N, all the problems of the world were to be solved through it, and it had such a capable General Secretary in Dag Hammarskjöld, a Swede. I looked at the light water, partially enriched Uranium nuclear power plants being developed and decided to have no part with it, not due to safety concerns but it was the design that produced the most nuclear waste of any of the available designs. At that time there was still optimism that fusion would be ready by about the year 2010 or so. The cost of maintaining spent fuel in perpetuity was never considered, so light water reactors became the low cost solution.
India on the other hand refused to join the nuclear non-proliferation treaty, kept their heavy water program going and had by 1974 produced enough plutonium for one nuclear bomb, which they promptly detonated. They still use heavy water moderated reactors, but since India is low on Uranium but rich in Thorium they have now converted one heavy water reactor to Thorium with a Plutonium glow plug. It went on-line in 2011.
They are also developing molten salt Thorium reactors, but full production is still a few years off.
There we have it. We could have gone with Thorium from the beginning, but the cold war was on, and the civilian peaceful use of nuclear energy was still all paid for by nuclear weapons research and development. Once all the bombs we could ever wish for were developed the greatest asset of nuclear power became its greatest liability.
The nuclear waste meant for Yucca
would destine Nevada the sucka
But with Thorium we rid
us of waste that is hid
No need for that waste to be trucka!
Radioactive waste from an LFTR (Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor) decays down to background radiation in 300 years instead of a million years for U-235 based reactors. Initially LFTRs produce as much radioactivity as an U-235 based nuclear reactor, since fission converts mass to heat, but the decay products have a much shorter half-life. See the figure below.
Where is the storage for spent nuclear fuel and other nuclear waste now? Look at the map, it is scary.
And these are just the U.S. installations!
Many years ago I studied Engineering at Chalmers’ University in Sweden and I thought I would become a nuclear engineer. Sweden had at that time a peaceful heavy water based nuclear power program together with Canada and India. The advantage with heavy water as moderator is that it can use natural, un-enriched Uranium. One of the end products is of course Plutonium 239, the preferred material to make nuclear bombs, but it could also use Thorium, and the end product is then mostly Plutonium 238, used in space exploration, and we were dreaming big. One of the advantages of Thorium as fuel is that it produces about 0,01% of trans-Uranium waste compared to Uranium as fuel. About that time the U.S. proposed we should abandon the heavy water program and switch to light water enriched Uranium based nuclear power. They would sell the enriched Uranium, and reprocess the spent fuel at cost. They also had the ideal final resting place for the radioactive waste products in Nevada. This was an offer the Swedish government could not refuse, at the height of the cold war. This was in the 1960’s! India on the other hand did refuse, and they eventually got the nuclear bomb. Since that meant Sweden was never going to use Thorium as nuclear fuel, and I could not figure out how to get rid of all the radioactive waste products, I switched my attention back to control engineering.
What did President Trump mean with innovative approaches?
Is this where Thorium comes in!?
Thorium nuclear power is the only realistic solution to power space colonies. To form space colonies, power has to be provided to sustain the colony. This means that Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors (LFTR) have to be fully developed and operational here on earth before serious space colony development can even begin. It need to get started in earnest NOW!
Kirk Sorensen has provided an intriguing teaser on the cause for Thorium nuclear energy.
Watch it and enjoy!
NASA relies on pu-238 to power long-lasting spacecraft batteries that transform heat into electricity. With foreign and domestic supplies dwindling, NASA officials are worried the shortage will prevent the agency from sending spacecraft to the outer planets and other destinations where sunlight is scarce. Thorium reactors produce PU-238 as a “free” byproduct. In 2009 Congress denied a request to produce more Pu-238 by traditional means, instead relying on Russia to sell us the plutonium. (Remember the Russian reset?) Russia made their last delivery in 2010. PU-238 production has since been restarted by converting Ne-237 to Pu-238 at a cost of over 8 million dollars per kilogram. The Ceres-Dawn spacecraft used over 22 Kg of Pu-238 as electricity generator.
To get the best efficiency of generating Pu-238 out of a molten salt Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor, the excess U-233 and TRansUranium products have to be extracted continuously while the reactor is running, and this technology is not yet implemented, but is necessary to implement before we can also have Thorium power on the moon, and Thorium Power is the only viable solution if we are ever going to have a moon colony, so we should get to it.
Presumptive Democratic presidential nominee Joe Biden lambasted President Donald Trump’s handling of the coronavirus pandemic Tuesday, saying that Trump is “in retreat” with more 125,000 Americans dead and the virus worsening in many states.
In March, President Trump used a press conference to promote the use of hydroxychloroquine, a common anti-malaria drug, to treat Covid-19, saying: “I sure as hell think we ought to give it a try.”
He followed this with a tweet that claimed the use of the drug in combination with azithromycin, an antibiotic, could be “one of the biggest game-changers in the history of medicine”. On Sunday April 5, Trump again touted hydroxychloroquine, saying “there are some very strong, powerful signs” of its potential as a Covid-19 therapy.
Trump has been repeatedly contradicted by public health experts including his own top infectious diseases adviser, Dr Anthony Fauci, who has warned that there is only “anecdotal evidence” that the drugs could be helpful. To prove his point, they produced in short order three studies, one from the Veterans administration and two from hospitals showing that it had no positive effect on people sick enough to fight for their lives. At a Neil Cavuto show (FOX) a medical doctor even claimed “If you take it outside of a physician’s supervision You will die!” Meanwhile this very drug has even been given to pregnant women and nursing mothers as a treatment for Lupus with no restrictions, and they take it for life, or until the lupus disappears.
There are at least ten countries that prescribe HydroxyCloroQuine, mostly in combination with Zinc and an antibiotic, as soon as COVID symptoms occur. When the illness has progressed to the point of autoimmune overreaction and the oxygen exchange is to the point of collapse it is too late and may even aggravate the situation.
The ten countries chosen are: Turkey, South Korea, Malaysia, Senegal, Costa Rica, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Morocco, Russia and Qatar. It can safely be assumed that not all of these countries have a health care system superior to ours. How are these ten countries faring in the Corona-virus fight, compared to the rest of the world?
For the world as a whole, the death rate from the Corona-virus as of June 30 is 4.85% of diagnosed cases. and recovered cases versus deaths is 11.28 recorded recoveries for every death.
For the United States the death rate from the Corona-virus as of June 30 is 4.77% of diagnosed cases. and recovered cases versus deaths is 8.78 recorded recoveries for every death. or about the same as for the world as a whole.
Taking the average, adjusted for the number of positive cases, the average adjusted death rate for ten countries, where people are taking HCQ + Zinc as soon as they are diagnosed positive, is 1.51%.
This means that the risk of death is reduced by a factor of 3.2 if HZQ + Zinc is taken as early as possible after a positive diagnosis for corona-virus!
Recovered cases versus deaths is an indicator of how fast patients recover after taking HCQ. Taking the average recovery ratio over the number of cases, gives the median recovery ratio, of 55.5, compared to the recovery rate for the rest of the world of 11.28, an improvement of 4.9 times as many recorded recoveries for every death. This is an indicator of how fast people recover, but is a very lagging indicator, since many countries do not report recovered cases in a timely manner. If they did, both the numbers for the ten countries, and for the world as a whole would look better, but it is the best measurement we have for now.
The total positive cases for these ten countries are over one million, or about 10.0% of all positive tests so far, far more than any double blind controlled study could ever produce, and indicate that if implemented all across U.S. (and the world as a whole) the death rate from now on would be about a third of what we are now experiencing. In addition hospitalizations and hospital stays would be greatly reduced.
WHO paused a double blind study out of an “abundance of caution”.
HCQ has been taken by over one million patients testing positive for the corona-virus as soon as symptoms did arise or shortly thereafter. We do not need a double blind control study, the results speak for themselves.
Is it because it has been promoted by President Trump, and some would rather die than get cured because of that?
Is HCQ too cheap to promote? It is totally generic, no pharmaceutical company stands to gain from producing it, so there will be no study made by them. Any study will have to come from government, or a university not depending on grants from the pharmaceutical industry.
Is it too dangerous? No, it is approved and has been given as a prevention for malaria for over 50 years, it has been approved for combating Lupus for over 20 years, and can be given to pregnant women and nursing mothers with no restrictions. There is a small number of cases involving heart arrhythmia, but these patients can be monitored with an ECG, and if the condition is severe they can be advised not to take the medication.
It is high time to save lives. Implement the Hydroxychloroquine + Axithromycin + Zinc regimen to be taken as soon as symptoms occur or testing positive NOW! Do not wait for the double blind confirmation tests, they take seemingly forever.
Appendix: The data is used from https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/
The death rate from all causes doubles for every 8 years as you age or about 9% per year. The death rate from Corona-virus is remarkably the same as the death rate from all causes, adjusted for age. The world median age is 30.4 years. So let the world death rate be the norm and adjust for the median age for the 10 countries.
World death rate as of June 25 is 4.77% of diagnosed cases. and recovered cases versus deaths is 8.78
Compare this with 10 countries that use HCQ for most patients as soon as they test positive for the corona virus.
Turkey: Death rate 2.57%, median age 30.9, adjusted death rate 2.45%, recovered cases versus deaths 33.7, total cases 199,906
South Korea: Death rate 2.19%, median age 30.9, adjusted death rate 2.10% recovered cases versus deaths 41.2, total cases 12,850
Malaysia: Death rate 1.40%, median age 28.5, adjusted death rate 1.68% recovered cases versus deaths 69.0, total cases 8,639
Senegal: Death rate 1.65%, median age 18.8, adjusted death rate 4.44%, recovered cases versus deaths 44.2, total cases 6,793
Costa Rica: Death rate 0.46%, median age 31.3, adjusted death rate 0.44%, recovered cases versus deaths 89.7, total cases 3,459
United Arab Emirates: Death rate 0.65%, median age 30.9, adjusted death rate 0.62%, recovered cases versus deaths 119.2 , total cases 48,667
Bahrain: Death rate 0.33%, median age 32.3, adjusted death rate 0.28%, recovered cases versus deaths 260.6, total cases 26,758
Morocco: Death rate 1.82%, median age 29.3, adjusted death rate 2.00%, recovered cases versus deaths 39.1, total cases 12,533
Russia: Death rate 1.44%, median age 30.9, adjusted death rate 1.38%, recovered cases versus deaths 44.2, total cases 647,849
Qatar: Death rate 0.12%, median age 30.9, but since 88% of the population are migrant workers between 20 and 60, the adjusted death rate is at least 8 times higher, or 094 %, and adjusted recovered cases versus deaths 90.2, total cases 96,088