When was the crucifixion of Jesus? Wednesday, Friday, Thursday? And what year?

Do we know the exact date, or even year when Jesus was crucified?  In 2016 the Western churches celebrated Easter Sunday, March 27, while the Eastern Churches celebrated Easter Sunday, May 1. In addition, most denomination commemorate Christ’s crucifixion on Friday, but some commemorate it on Wednesday. How did it get this way, so that it can be up to five weeks difference? In 2017 both the Eastern and Western branch of Christendom celebrate Easter at the same time, April 16.

This is nothing new. Until the time the temple was destroyed the Jews kept good count on when Passover occurred, but after the Jews were dispersed it was not always done in the same month, so no one could be really sure. In addition some celebrated Easter on Sunday after Passover, while others celebrated Easter three days after Passover.  So the First Council of Nicaea (A.D. 325) declared that Easter was always to be held on a Sunday, the first Sunday after the first full moon after the vernal equinox.

In the fourth century, Hillel II established a fixed calendar based on mathematical and astronomical calculations. This calendar, still in use, standardized the length of months and the addition of months over the course of a 19 year cycle, so that the lunar calendar realigns with the solar years. Adar I is added in the 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th and 19th years of the cycle. The last cycle began in Jewish year 5758 (the year that began October 2, 1997). If you are musically inclined, you may find it helpful to remember this pattern of leap years by reference to the major scale: for each whole step there are two regular years and a leap year; for each half-step there is one regular year and a leap year. This is easier to understand when you examine the keyboard illustration below and see how it relates to the leap years above.

Keyboard illustrating pattern of leap years

Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little) was called by the Pope St. John I to determine the next few dates for Easter. He did more than that. He became the inventor of Anno Domini. His Easter table was constructed in the year 525 for the years 532–626 A.D. ( Anno Domini,  or The Year of our Lord)
Jesus Age of Service
Numbers 4:3,23,30,35,43,47 (NIV) Count all the men from thirty to fifty years of age who come to serve in the work in the Tent of Meeting.
1 Chronicles 23:3  (NIV) The Levites thirty years old or more were counted, and the total number of men was thirty-eight thousand.
Luke 3:23 (NIV) Now Jesus himself was about thirty years old when he began his ministry. He was the son, so it was thought, of Joseph,
Jesus started his public ministry A.D. 30, at the age of 30.
Count the Passovers
Passover 1: Jn 2:13 When it was almost time for the Jewish Passover, Jesus went up to Jerusalem.
Passover 2: Jn 5:1 Some time later, Jesus went up to Jerusalem for a feast of the Jews.
Passover 3: Mt 15: 1Then some Pharisees and teachers of the law came to Jesus from Jerusalem and asked, 2″Why do your disciples break the tradition of the elders? They don’t wash their hands before they eat!”
We are now at A.D.33

So far so good. Joseph Caiaphas (18–36), who had married the daughter of Annas (John 18:13) Pontius Pilate (Latin: Pontius Pilatus, Greek: Πόντιος Πιλάτος) governed from  A.D. 26 until 36.

The case for crucifixion on Friday
The next day was the Sabbath
The third day
Leviticus 7:17  (NIV) Any meat of the sacrifice left over till the third day must be burned up.
Luke 9:22  (NIV) And he said, “The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders, chief priests and teachers of the law, and he must be killed and on the third day be raised to life.“
1 Corinthians 15:4  (NIV) that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures,

‘After three days’
Matthew 27:63  (NIV) “Sir,” they said, “we remember that while he was still alive that deceiver said, ‘After three days I will rise again.‘
Mark 8:31  (NIV) He then began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders, chief priests and teachers of the law, and that he must be killed and after three days rise again.
John 2:19 (NIV) Jesus answered them, “Destroy this temple, and I will raise it again in three days.”

No Corruption
Psalm 16:10  (KJV) For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.
Psalm 49:9  (KJV) That he should still live for ever, and not see corruption.

The next day was the Sabbath
Jesus rose on the third day, Sunday
Good Friday, Long Friday, Holy Friday is an official holiday in all ‘Christian’ countries
It was observed early in the church
Year 33 is the only one with Passover on Friday
Fri 01-Apr-0033  Erev Pesach
Sat 02-Apr-0033  Pesach I
Sun 03-Apr-0033  Pesach II
Mon 04-Apr-0033  Pesach III (CH”M)
Tue 05-Apr-0033  Pesach IV (CH”M)
Wed 06-Apr-0033  Pesach V (CH”M)
Thu 07-Apr-0033  Pesach VI (CH”M)
Fri 08-Apr-0033  Pesach VII
Sat 09-Apr-0033  Pesach VIII
Sun 17-Apr-0033  Rosh Chodesh Iyyar
Mon 18-Apr-0033  Rosh Chodesh Iyyar

Which Year was it?
In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar—when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, Herod tetrarch of Galilee, his brother Philip tetrarch of Iturea and Traconitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene— during the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John son of Zechariah in the desert.
Tiberius: AD12 granted supreme power by Augustus, AD14/08/19 accession, becomes Tiberius Caesar Augustus
Count the Passovers
Passover 1: Jn 2:13 When it was almost time for the Jewish Passover, Jesus went up to Jerusalem.
Passover 2: Jn 5:1 Some time later, Jesus went up to Jerusalem for a feast of the Jews.
Passover 3: Mt 15: 1Then some Pharisees and teachers of the law came to Jesus from Jerusalem and asked, 2″Why do your disciples break the tradition of the elders? They don’t wash their hands before they eat!”
That gets us to A.D. 30

Wed 03-Apr-0030  Ta’anit Bechorot
Wed 03-Apr-0030  Erev Pesach
Thu 04-Apr-0030  Pesach I
Fri 05-Apr-0030  Pesach II
Sat 06-Apr-0030  Pesach III (CH”M)
Sun 07-Apr-0030  Pesach IV (CH”M)
Mon 08-Apr-0030  Pesach V (CH”M)
Tue 09-Apr-0030  Pesach VI (CH”M)
Wed 10-Apr-0030  Pesach VII
Thu 11-Apr-0030  Pesach VIII
Fri 19-Apr-0030  Rosh Chodesh Iyyar
Sat 20-Apr-0030  Rosh Chodesh Iyyar

The case for Wednesday Crucifixion
Mt 12: 38 – 40 Then some of the Pharisees and teachers of the law said to him, “Teacher, we want to see a miraculous sign from you.”
He answered, “A wicked and adulterous generation asks for a miraculous sign! But none will be given it except the sign of the prophet Jonah.
For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of a huge fish, so the Son of Man will be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.

Mk 16:1 When the Sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices so that they might go to anoint Jesus’ body. (NIV)
Thursday is the feast of unleavened bread, where Passover was celebrated, Friday is a normal day, and Saturday is a normal Sabbath

Mt 28:1 After the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to look at the tomb.
The words, translated After the Sabbath are “opse de sabbaton” ‘οψε δε σαββατων’ translates literally “latter of the Sabbaths,” implying there were two Sabbaths.
At dawn, the tomb was empty.
According to the universal Hebrew Calendar for A.D. 30 Erev Pesach ( the 14:th of Nisan) was a Wednesday.
This is the official day of Crucifixion for many eastern Christians.
They also celebrate the Resurrection after sunset on Easter Eve.
This satisfies the sign of Jonah.

Problems with Wednesday Crucifixion
Luke 24:21  (NIV) but we had hoped that he was the one who was going to redeem Israel. And what is more, it is the third day since all this took place.
The prophecy in Lk 18:33 ‘On the third day he will rise again.’ would be in error.

More problems
Gen 1:5 God called the light “day,” and the darkness he called “night.” And there was evening, and there was morning—the first day.
Jonah was three days and three nights, in that order, in the fish.
The time counter in Jn 12:1 “Six days before the Passover, Jesus arrived at Bethany, where Lazarus lived, whom Jesus had raised from the dead.” would make Jesus do the triumphant entry on a Sabbath, which is improbable. It is more than a Sabbath day’s journey from Bethany to Jerusalem.
There are too many events to fit in 2 days until the Passover if the triumphant entry is on a Sunday.
The case for crucifixion on Friday
The next day was the Sabbath
Jesus rose on the third day, Sunday
Good Friday, Long Friday, Holy Friday is an official holiday in all Christian countries.
It was observed early in the church.

Problem with Friday Crucifixion.

Mt 12: 38 – 40 Then some of the Pharisees and teachers of the law said to him, “Teacher, we want to see a miraculous sign from you.”
He answered, “A wicked and adulterous generation asks for a miraculous sign! But none will be given it except the sign of the prophet Jonah.
For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of a huge fish, so the Son of Man will be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.

There are only two nights between Friday and Sunday morning.

The case for crucifixion on Thursday.
So, what day of the week was Passover A.D. 30 really?
We need to find the exact hour of the new moon that preceded Erev Nisan on A.D. 30. Times calculated here are in Jerusalem Time, which is Universal Time + 2hr 21 min. We will get astronomical new moon time (Jerusalem time).

Enter Hebrew Calendar
In the fourth century after the Temple’s destruction, when oppression and persecution threatened the continued existence of the Court, the patriarch Hillel II took an extraordinary step to preserve the unity of the Jewish people. To prevent the Jews scattered worldwide from celebrating their New Moons and holidays at different times, he made public the closely guarded secrets of Calendric calculation which had been used in the past only to check the observations and testimonies of witnesses and to determine the beginnings of the Spring system.
In accordance with this system, Hillel II formally sanctified all months in advance, and intercalated all future leap years until such time as a new, recognized High Court would again be established in Israel.
This is the permanent calendar according to which the New Moons and festivals are calculated and celebrated today by Jews all over the world.
Time is astronomical new moon (Jerusalem) time. If it falls after 12 o’clock noon a day is added to account for minimum time until a crescent can be observed.
The Hebrew calendar
The last 19 year cycle began in Jewish year 5777 (the year that began October 2, 2016).
Seven leap months are added in this 19 year cycle.
Leap months are inserted to make Passover occur early spring
Time of day of the new moon
The mew moon before Nisan 2006 was
March 29 at 12:36 p.m. which makes
1 Nisan (Rosh Chodesh Nisan)
Thursday March 30 (remember the new moon was after 12 noon )
Rosh Chodesh Nisan
A.D. 30 is 721728 days earlier, or 103104 weeks
A Lunar month calculation
Lunar calculations
Lunar Month linear formula = 29.530595200803 – M * 1.05048488E-11 mean solar days where M is the number of days since Gregorian day 1/1/1.
Doing the calculation yields the new moon for 1 Nisan A.D. 30 to be 21h 43 m Jerusalem Time, a Wednesday. Since this is past sunset, 1 Nisan is Thursday making 14:th Nisan a Wednesday.

Solar eclipse calculation
Mar 29 2006, 12h 33min Jerusalem time.
This makes 1 Nisan March 30 2006.
Nov 24 29 A.D. 11 h 37 m central total eclipse (Thursday)
Dec 24 29 A.D. 2h 16 m New moon (Saturday)
Jan 22 30 A.D. 16h 56 m New moon ( Sunday)
Feb 21 30 A.D. 7h 35 m New moon ( Tuesday)
Mar 22 30 A.D 22h 14 m New moon (Wednesday)
Apr 21 30 A.D. 12h 54 m New moon (Friday)
May 21 30 A.D. 3h 33 m Central annular ( Sunday)
The difference between these two calculations is 31 minutes, and that is mostly due to the fact that the lunar orbit duration varies, as does the solar day.
This would make Mar 22 A.D. 30 1 Nisan a Thursday according to Hillel II’s calendar rules, verified by solar eclipse calculations.
Back to the Hebrew Calendar
In the early times of Jewish history the beginning of each month was determined by direct observation of the New Moon. After witnesses testified that they had seen the new crescent and their testimony was thoroughly examined and confirmed by calculation, the beginning of the new month was sanctified and announced by the High Court (Sanhedrin) in Jerusalem. The Jewish communities were notified of the beginning of the new month (Rosh Chodesh) by the kindling of night fires atop mountains and, in later times, by messenger.
A special committee of the Sanhedrin, with its president as its chairman, had the mandate to regulate and balance the solar with the lunar years. This Calendar Council calculated the beginnings of the seasons on the basis of astronomical figures handed down from generation to generation. Whenever, after two or three years, the annual excess of 11 days had accumulated to approximately 30 days, a thirteenth month (Adar II) was inserted before Nissan in order to ensure that Nissan and Passover would occur in Spring.
This method of observation and intercalation was in use throughout the period of the Second Temple (349 B.C. – 69 A.D.) and about three centuries after its destruction, as long as there was an independent High Court.

Which brings us to Ramadan 2006
Sep 22 2006 11h 22m UT was a central annular solar eclipse.
Sunni Muslims observe local astronomical time for the new moon, so in the US and UK Ramadan started 23 Sep.
Many Muslims disagree when Ramadan should start, this is primarily because some mosques start Ramadan when their affiliate mosque in Saudi Arabia start Ramadan and others start it when the mosques in their home country starts Ramadan. The difference is because the sighting of the crescent moon is not possible at the same time in Saudi Arabia and the rest of the world. Some Muslims say they will start fasting on the 23rd Sept, other will start on the morning of the 24th Sept. Wherever you are, just assume the start date will be the date your local Islamic community representative says it will start.

Most Shiite mosques started Ramadan Sep. 24, since they depend on actual Crescent sightings.

Final correction for 1 Nisan
Since new moons were based on actual sightings in the year A.D.30 we must add one day to accommodate for the actual sighting of the crescent new moon in the evening sky.
This would make 1 Nisan a Friday and Erev Pesach, the 14:th of Nisan a Thursday.
8 Nisan A.D. 30 (Friday)
Jn 12:1 Six days before the Passover, Jesus arrived at Bethany, where Lazarus lived, whom Jesus had raised from the dead.
9 Nisan (Friday night – Saturday)
Jn 12:2 Here a dinner was given in Jesus’ honor. Martha served, while Lazarus was among those reclining at the table with him.
10 Nisan ( Sunday)
The Pascal lamb is selected
Ex 12:1 The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in Egypt, 2 “This month is to be for you the first month, the first month of your year. 3 Tell the whole community of Israel that on the tenth day of this month each man is to take a lamb for his family, one for each household….”

The donkey
Lk 19:28 After Jesus had said this, he went on ahead, going up to Jerusalem. 29As he approached Bethphage and Bethany at the hill called the Mount of Olives, he sent two of his disciples, saying to them, 30″Go to the village ahead of you, and as you enter it, you will find a colt tied there, which no one has ever ridden. Untie it and bring it here. 31If anyone asks you, ‘Why are you untying it?’ tell him, ‘The Lord needs it.’ “
Zech 9:9 Rejoice greatly, O Daughter of Zion!
Shout, Daughter of Jerusalem!
See, your King comes to you,
righteous and having salvation,
gentle and riding on a donkey,
on a colt, the foal of a donkey.
The triumphal entry
Jn 12: 12 The next day the great crowd that had come for the Feast heard that Jesus was on his way to Jerusalem. 13They took palm branches and went out to meet him, shouting,
“Hosanna!”
“Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!”
“Blessed is the King of Israel!” 14Jesus found a young donkey and sat upon it, as it is written,
15″Do not be afraid, O Daughter of Zion;
see, your king is coming,
seated on a donkey’s colt.”
11 Nisan (Monday)
Mk 11:12 The next day as they were leaving Bethany, Jesus was hungry. 13 Seeing in the distance a fig tree in leaf, he went to find out if it had any fruit. When he reached it, he found nothing but leaves, because it was not the season for figs. 14 Then he said to the tree, “May no one ever eat fruit from you again.” And his disciples heard him say it.
15 On reaching Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple area and began driving out those who were buying and selling there. He overturned the tables of the money changers and the benches of those selling doves, 16 and would not allow anyone to carry merchandise through the temple courts. 17 And as he taught them, he said, “Is it not written:
” ‘My house will be called
a house of prayer for all nations’? But you have made it ‘a den of robbers.'”

12 Nisan (Tuesday)
Mk 11: 27They arrived again in Jerusalem, and while Jesus was walking in the temple courts, the chief priests, the teachers of the law and the elders came to him. 28″By what authority are you doing these things?” they asked. “And who gave you authority to do this?”  29Jesus replied, “I will ask you one question. Answer me, and I will tell you by what authority I am doing these things. 30John’s baptism—was it from heaven, or from men? Tell me!”
31They discussed it among themselves and said, “If we say, ‘From heaven,’ he will ask, ‘Then why didn’t you believe him?’ 32But if we say, ‘From men’….” (They feared the people, for everyone held that John really was a prophet.)
33So they answered Jesus, “We don’t know.”
Jesus said, “Neither will I tell you by what authority I am doing these things.“
Jesus teaches in the temple
Jesus anointed at Bethany.
13 Nisan (Wednesday)
Mt 26:14 Then one of the Twelve—the one called Judas Iscariot—went to the chief priests 15and asked, “What are you willing to give me if I hand him over to you?” So they counted out for him thirty silver coins. 16From then on Judas watched for an opportunity to hand him over.
Lk 22: 7 Then came the day of Unleavened Bread on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. 8Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, “Go and make preparations for us to eat the Passover.”  9″Where do you want us to prepare for it?” they asked.
10He replied, “As you enter the city, a man carrying a jar of water will meet you. Follow him to the house that he enters, 11and say to the owner of the house, ‘The Teacher asks: Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?’ 12He will show you a large upper room, all furnished. Make preparations there.”
13They left and found things just as Jesus had told them. So they prepared the Passover.
14 Nisan (Wednesday night)
Lev 23: 4 ” ‘These are the LORD’s appointed feasts, the sacred assemblies you are to proclaim at their appointed times: 5 The LORD’s Passover begins at twilight on the fourteenth day of the first month. 6 On the fifteenth day of that month the LORD’s Feast of Unleavened Bread begins; for seven days you must eat bread made without yeast. 7 On the first day hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work. 8 For seven days present an offering made to the LORD by fire. And on the seventh day hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work.’ “

The importance of the word Twilight (beyn ha-arbayim)
Literally BETWEEN THE TWO EVENINGS
“……In Jewish orthodoxy the time of the slaughter, between the two evenings, is specified as in the afternoon, before sunset; especially, the time approaching sunset. The Mishnah implies that any time after noon was valid for the slaying (Pesahim 5:3).
SAMARITANS, KARAITES, and SADDUCEES specify the time as AFTER SUNSET AND BEFORE DARKNESS. The latter probably designates the more archaic practice.”
The Jewish Publication Society of America in their old translation of the Hebrew from the Masoretic text, translates beyn ha-arbayim (between the two evenings) consistently(every place it is used) as “DUSK.” In their new TANAKH translation they render this phrase in EX.12:6 and 16:12 as “AT TWILIGHT.”
(from a page of the Mishnah)
Wednesday night
The Passover where Jesus institutes the new covenant memorial service
Gethsemane
Jesus betrayal and arrest

14 Nisan (Thursday)
Jesus before Caiaphas (the Sanhedrin)
Peter denies Jesus (thrice)
Judas hangs himself
Jesus before Pilate
Jesus before Herod
Back to Pilate and the people
The Crucifixion
The ceremonial Pascal lamb sacrificed in the Temple
The Death of Jesus
The temple veil rent in two from top to bottom
The Burial of Jesus
Mt 27:57 As evening approached, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who had himself become a disciple of Jesus. 58Going to Pilate, he asked for Jesus’ body, and Pilate ordered that it be given to him. 59Joseph took the body, wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, 60and placed it in his own new tomb that he had cut out of the rock. He rolled a big stone in front of the entrance to the tomb and went away. 61Mary Magdalene and the other Mary were sitting there opposite the tomb.
Lk 23: 50 Now there was a man named Joseph, a member of the Council, a good and upright man, 51who had not consented to their decision and action. He came from the Judean town of Arimathea and he was waiting for the kingdom of God. 52Going to Pilate, he asked for Jesus’ body. 53Then he took it down, wrapped it in linen cloth and placed it in a tomb cut in the rock, one in which no one had yet been laid. 54It was Preparation Day, and the Sabbath was about to begin.
Jn 19: 31Now it was the day of Preparation, and the next day was to be a special Sabbath.

15 Nisan (Thursday night – Friday) A “special Sabbath”.
Traditional Passover Seder is celebrated by the Jews following tradition (notice the change of day)
Mt 27: 62The next day, the one after Preparation Day, the chief priests and the Pharisees went to Pilate.
63″Sir,” they said, “we remember that while he was still alive that deceiver said, ‘After three days I will rise again.‘
64So give the order for the tomb to be made secure until the third day. Otherwise, his disciples may come and steal the body and tell the people that he has been raised from the dead. This last deception will be worse than the first.”
65″Take a guard,” Pilate answered. “Go, make the tomb as secure as you know how.”
66So they went and made the tomb secure by putting a seal on the stone and posting the guard.

17 Nisan (Saturday)
Normal Sabbath

18 Nisan (Sunday)
Mt 28:1 After the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to look at the tomb.
The words, translated After the Sabbath are “opse de sabbaton” ‘οψε δε σαββατων’ translates literally “latter of the Sabbaths.” This implies there was more than one Sabbath.
At dawn, the tomb was empty.

Conclusion
With this view, all prophesies and signs are fulfilled, (Jesus came to fulfill scripture)
The confusion inserted by the Pharisees is taken care of.
The astronomical evidence is satisfied.

And, In God’s providence Jesus could eat the passover at its proper day and also be our passover lamb the next day as the symbolic lamb was simultaneously sacrificed in the temple.

On Data gathering, life. hacking by CIA and Wikileaks.

A tweet can contain up to 140 characters, a limit that is now relaxed, but if each character takes up 8 bits of information (one byte), the it can be said, a tweet is 140 bytes.

The  Authorized version of the King James Bible contains 3,116,480 characters, or about 22,260 tweets. Some people have tweeted that much!

But all the information in the KJV pales compared to the information in every cell of the human body. The numbers will get large, so let us learn about large numbers

One kilobyte is 1000 bytes, Megabyte is 1000 Kb or 1000,000 bytes, Gigabyte is 1000 Mb or 1,000,000,000 bytes, Terabyte is 1000 Gigabytes or 1,000,000,000,000 bytes, Petabyte is 1000 Terabytes or 1,000,000,000,000,000 bytes, Exabyte is 1000 Terabytes or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes,  Zettabyte is 1000 Exabytes or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes, —Yottabyte is 1000 Zettabytes or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes.

Back to how much data is in our body. We have about 3,2 billion DNA genome pairs in every cell in our body. there are 4 types, so each pair can be packed into 2 bits, which means every cell in our body contains 800 Megabytes of data, the information equivalent of 250 King James Bibles. Giving there are about 37 trillion cells in our body plus about one quadrillion bacteria in our gut the total amount of information in our body is about 30 Exabytes, most of it duplicated, but yet. In addition, all plants and animals contain DNA, so the total information in the world is staggering, far exceeding the term Yottabyte.

If you are an atheist or true believer in evolution that all this came about by chance plus time plus nothing, especially no sign of intelligent design, the math doesn’t add up.

In 2001 the New York City twin towers were destroyed through a terror attack, and the U.S. response was to collect data to capture terrorists before they could attack. The NSA started to monitor all electronic communication through a program called Prism, starting in earnest in 2007, see fig:

This is in part taking place in a large data center in Utah, housing, it is rumored up to one Yottabyte of collected data.  What type of data do they collect? Check this figure:

The question is this: How much of this is linked to terror?

Then, today I found out via Wikileaks that NSA is not alone is spying on us.

CIA malware targets iPhone, Android, smart TVs

CIA malware and hacking tools are built by EDG (Engineering Development Group), a software development group within CCI (Center for Cyber Intelligence), a department belonging to the CIA’s DDI (Directorate for Digital Innovation). The DDI is one of the five major directorates of the CIA (see this organizational chart of the CIA for more details).

The EDG is responsible for the development, testing and operational support of all backdoors, exploits, malicious payloads, trojans, viruses and any other kind of malware used by the CIA in its covert operations world-wide.

The increasing sophistication of surveillance techniques has drawn comparisons with George Orwell’s 1984, but “Weeping Angel”, developed by the CIA’s Embedded Devices Branch (EDB), which infests smart TVs, transforming them into covert microphones, is surely its most emblematic realization.

The attack against Samsung smart TVs was developed in cooperation with the United Kingdom’s MI5/BTSS. After infestation, Weeping Angel places the target TV in a ‘Fake-Off’ mode, so that the owner falsely believes the TV is off when it is on. In ‘Fake-Off’ mode the TV operates as a bug, recording conversations in the room and sending them over the Internet to a covert CIA server.

As of October 2014 the CIA was also looking at infecting the vehicle control systems used by modern cars and trucks. The purpose of such control is not specified, but it would permit the CIA to engage in nearly undetectable assassinations.

The CIA’s Mobile Devices Branch (MDB) developed numerous attacks to remotely hack and control popular smart phones. Infected phones can be instructed to send the CIA the user’s geolocation, audio and text communications as well as covertly activate the phone’s camera and microphone.

Despite iPhone’s minority share (14.5%) of the global smart phone market in 2016, a specialized unit in the CIA’s Mobile Development Branch produces malware to infest, control and exfiltrate data from iPhones and other Apple products running iOS, such as iPads. CIA’s arsenal includes numerous local and remote “zero days” developed by CIA or obtained from GCHQ, NSA, FBI or purchased from cyber arms contractors such as Baitshop. The disproportionate focus on iOS may be explained by the popularity of the iPhone among social, political, diplomatic and business elites.

A similar unit targets Google’s Android which is used to run the majority of the world’s smart phones (~85%) including Samsung, HTC and Sony. 1.15 billion Android powered phones were sold last year. “Year Zero” shows that as of 2016 the CIA had 24 “weaponized” Android “zero days” which it has developed itself and obtained from GCHQ, NSA and cyber arms contractors.

These techniques permit the CIA to bypass the encryption of WhatsApp, Signal, Telegram, Wiebo, Confide and Cloackman by hacking the “smart” phones that they run on and collecting audio and message traffic before encryption is applied.

CIA malware targets Windows, OSx, Linux, routers

The CIA also runs a very substantial effort to infect and control Microsoft Windows users with its malware. This includes multiple local and remote weaponized “zero days”, air gap jumping viruses such as “Hammer Drill” which infects software distributed on CD/DVDs, infectors for removable media such as USBs, systems to hide data in images or in covert disk areas ( “Brutal Kangaroo”) and to keep its malware infestations going.

Many of these infection efforts are pulled together by the CIA’s Automated Implant Branch (AIB), which has developed several attack systems for automated infestation and control of CIA malware, such as “Assassin” and “Medusa”.

Attacks against Internet infrastructure and webservers are developed by the CIA’s Network Devices Branch (NDB).

The CIA has developed automated multi-platform malware attack and control systems covering Windows, Mac OS X, Solaris, Linux and more, such as EDB’s “HIVE” and the related “Cutthroat” and “Swindle” tools, which are described in the examples section below.

CIA ‘hoarded’ vulnerabilities (“zero days”)

In the wake of Edward Snowden’s leaks about the NSA, the U.S. technology industry secured a commitment from the Obama administration that the executive would disclose on an ongoing basis — rather than hoard — serious vulnerabilities, exploits, bugs or “zero days” to Apple, Google, Microsoft, and other US-based manufacturers.

Serious vulnerabilities not disclosed to the manufacturers places huge swathes of the population and critical infrastructure at risk to foreign intelligence or cyber criminals who independently discover or hear rumors of the vulnerability. If the CIA can discover such vulnerabilities so can others.

The U.S. government’s commitment to the Vulnerabilities Equities Process came after significant lobbying by US technology companies, who risk losing their share of the global market over real and perceived hidden vulnerabilities. The government stated that it would disclose all pervasive vulnerabilities discovered after 2010 on an ongoing basis.

“Year Zero” documents show that the CIA breached the Obama administration’s commitments. Many of the vulnerabilities used in the CIA’s cyber arsenal are pervasive and some may already have been found by rival intelligence agencies or cyber criminals.

As an example, specific CIA malware revealed in “Year Zero” is able to penetrate, infest and control both the Android phone and iPhone software that runs or has run presidential Twitter accounts. The CIA attacks this software by using undisclosed security vulnerabilities (“zero days”) possessed by the CIA but if the CIA can hack these phones then so can everyone else who has obtained or discovered the vulnerability. As long as the CIA keeps these vulnerabilities concealed from Apple and Google (who make the phones) they will not be fixed, and the phones will remain hackable.

The same vulnerabilities exist for the population at large, including the U.S. Cabinet, Congress, top CEOs, system administrators, security officers and engineers. By hiding these security flaws from manufacturers like Apple and Google the CIA ensures that it can hack everyone  at the expense of leaving everyone hackable.

‘Cyberwar’ programs are a serious proliferation risk

Cyber ‘weapons’ are not possible to keep under effective control.

While nuclear proliferation has been restrained by the enormous costs and visible infrastructure involved in assembling enough fissile material to produce a critical nuclear mass, cyber ‘weapons’, once developed, are very hard to retain.

Cyber ‘weapons’ are in fact just computer programs which can be pirated like any other. Since they are entirely comprised of information they can be copied quickly with no marginal cost.

Securing such ‘weapons’ is particularly difficult since the same people who develop and use them have the skills to exfiltrate copies without leaving traces — sometimes by using the very same ‘weapons’ against the organizations that contain them. There are substantial price incentives for government hackers and consultants to obtain copies since there is a global “vulnerability market” that will pay hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars for copies of such ‘weapons’. Similarly, contractors and companies who obtain such ‘weapons’ sometimes use them for their own purposes, obtaining advantage over their competitors in selling ‘hacking’ services.

Over the last three years the United States intelligence sector, which consists of government agencies such as the CIA and NSA and their contractors, such as Booz Allan Hamilton, has been subject to unprecedented series of data exfiltrations by its own workers.

A number of intelligence community members not yet publicly named have been arrested or subject to federal criminal investigations in separate incidents.

Most visibly, on February 8, 2017 a U.S. federal grand jury indicted Harold T. Martin III with 20 counts of mishandling classified information. The Department of Justice alleged that it seized some 50,000 gigabytes of information from Harold T. Martin III that he had obtained from classified programs at NSA and CIA, including the source code for numerous hacking tools.

Once a single cyber ‘weapon’ is ‘loose’ it can spread around the world in seconds, to be used by peer states, cyber mafia and teenage hackers alike.

This is where we are today.  On Saturday, President Trump found out that he had been spied upon in Trump Tower during the election. The Wikileaks revelation lends credibility to this accusation. And of course, CIA can make it appear that the hacking came from, say Russia and then put in some false software, framing the victim.

Yet, all this spyware, hacking and data gathering is simple compared to the wonder of life.

Death Valley rains lead to super bloom! A Limerick.

The desert and the parched land will be glad;
    the wilderness will rejoice and blossom.
Like the crocus, it will burst into bloom;
    it will rejoice greatly and shout for joy.
The glory of Lebanon will be given to it,
    the splendor of Carmel and Sharon;
they will see the glory of the Lord,
    the splendor of our God. (Isaiah 35:1-2)

living_prairieIt rained cats and dogs in Death Valley.

Find passable roads, Rand McNally!

See the desert in bloom;

not the feeling of doom,

a wish that is right up my alley!

In 1953 Walt Disney came out with a ground breaking movie. The name of it was “The living Desert” and showed time lapse photography of wild flowers bursting out from what looked like bare rock. My father took me as a little lad to see it in a movie theater in small town Sweden, and I was blown away. Ever since then I have wanted to see Death Valley in full bloom. Now it has happened. Death Valley is in full bloom. But, as with all blessings it comes with a price. Reading the park bulletin I see the following alerts:

Scotty’s Castle CLOSED until 2018 due to flood damage.  Alert 1 , Severity ,closure ,,Scotty’s Castle CLOSED until 2019 due to flood damage. Flooding in Grapevine Canyon from a severe thunderstorm has destroyed the road to Scotty’s Castle, damaged infrastructure and some out-buildings in the Castle complex. more

Closed Roads: Alert 1 , Severity ,closure ,,Closed Roads Titus Canyon, Emigrant Canyon, West Side, and Scotty’s Castle (also known as North Highway) Roads are closed due to snow and mud. Artists Drive is also closed. Please visit our Alerts & Conditions page by selecting “more.”  more

Weather conditions for 2/18 : Rain so far today in Death Valley, 0.66 inches, and more is expected.

For now I am reduced to admire the pictures some other people have taken:

600_447397036death-valley-super-bloom-california-03-blooms0316

 

 

Byssan lull, boil the kettle so full, a song in Swedish and English.

As a little lad, my grandfather put me on his knees and sang this little lullaby. He was a skipper, having been both “on the Heat” and fishing on the banks of Iceland, so he sang it with emotions, slowly rocking as if we were sailing.

This is how I remember it.

Byssan lull, koka kittelen full,
där kommer tre vandringsmän på vägen,
byssan lull, koka kittelen full,
där kommer tre vandringsmän på vägen.
Den ene, ack så halt,
den andre, o, så blind,
den tredje säger alls ingenting.

Byssan lull, koka kittelen full,
på himmelen vandra tre stjärnor,
byssan lull, koka kittelen full.
på himmelen vandra tre stjärnor,
Den ene är så vit,
den andra är så röd,
den tredje är månen den gula.

Byssan lull, koka kittelen full,
där blåser tre vindar på haven,
byssan lull, koka kittelen full,
där blåser tre vindar på haven.
På Stora Skagerack,
på lilla Kattegatt
och långt upp i Bottniska viken.

Byssan lull, koka kittelen full,
där segla tre skepp uppå vågen,
byssan lull, koka kittelen full,
där segla tre skepp uppå vågen.
Den första är en bark,
den andra är en brigg,
den tredje har så trasiga segel.

Byssan lull, koka kittelen full,
sjökistan har trenne figurer,
byssan lull, koka kittelen full,
sjökistan har trenne figurer.
Den första är vår tro,
den andra är vårt hopp,
den tredje är kärleken den röda.

Byssan lull, koka kittelen full,
de tre äro heliga ena
byssan lull, koka kittelen full,
de tre äro heliga ena.
Den förste är Gud Far,
den andre är Hans Son,
den tredje är den Helige Ande.

And now for the English translation:

Byssan lull, boil the kettle so full,
three wanderers are coming down the alley.
Byssan lull, boil the kettle so full,
three wanderers are coming down the alley.
The first one, oh so limp,
the second, oh, so blind,
the third one is mute, saying nothing.

Byssan lull, boil the kettle so full,
in heaven three stars are a-wand’ring,
Byssan lull, boil the kettle so full,
in heaven three stars are a-wand’ring,
The first one is so white,
the second is so red,
the third is the moon, bright and yellow.

Byssan lull, boil the kettle so full,
three winds blowing over the oceans.
Byssan lull, boil the kettle so full,
three winds blowing over the oceans.
On greater Skagerak,
on little Kattegat,
and far up in the Bothnian Bay.

Byssan lull, boil the kettle so full,
three ships sailing over the ocean.
Byssan lull, boil the kettle so full,
three ships sailing over the ocean.
The first one is a barque,
the second is a brigg,
the sails of the third are so tattered.

Byssan lull, boil the kettle so full,
the Seaman’s chest has triple engravings.
Byssan lull, boil the kettle so full,
the Seaman’s chest has triple engravings.
The cross is for our faith,
the anchor for our hope,
the heart is for charity the crimson.

Byssan lull, boil the kettle so full,
these three are in one that are holy.
Byssan lull, boil the kettle so full,
these three are in one and are holy.
The first is Father God,
the second is His Son,
the third is the Holy Spirit.

And here is the music score, as per Evert Taube.

ess_pastebitmap00102

Boy and girl scouting are missing their goal. How about Awana?

Many years ago I met a friend that had escaped East Germany after the war. He emigrated to U.S., met a delightful Southern Belle and fell in love. She was a faithful church goer, so before she would accept his advances she asked about his faith. He answered proudly “I am a Lutheran” to which she answered “Oh, is that’s like the Catholics?” This didn’t sit well with him, but he loved her very much, so he promised to go to church with her anyhow. He liked the people very much and felt welcome, so he became a faithful church-goer, but kept his faith to himself. They  married, got children, brought them to church, but when the church started an Awana program he drew the line. “No Awana for my children! It’s indoctrination! Their scarves reminds me of my childhood’s Hitler-youth“. This saddened his wife, but being a loyal wife, she submitted and let the children join the Boy and Girl Scouts. This went on for  years, but one time taking his daughter and two of her girl friends home after the scout meeting he happened to listen to what they were saying to each other about the meeting and many other things. The next Wednesday he came with his whole family and exclaimed “Awana, here we come” to the delight of his wife and children, since that’s where their real friends were, and this experience was also the catalyst for his salvation.

awanaThis was 35 years ago, and Awana is still going strong. The name Awana comes from 2 Timothy 2:15 Approved Workmen Are Not Ashamed  and their mission statement is: God is changing the world through the ministry of Awana by equipping leaders to reach kids with the gospel and engaging them in long-term discipleship.

Meanwhile, the Boy scouts and Girl Scouts of America have taken a different route and are now even further removed from their original mission than they imageswere 35 years ago.

 

 

Scientists’ march on DC, a Limerick.

A scientists’ march on D.C. ?

It can’t apolitical be.

For they must get their grants

through political chants.

Conform or get cut, can’t you see?

Sometimes in the near future there will be yet another march on Washington. This time it is from “concerned scientists” that want to take politics out of science, be allowed to be true scientists with no biases or prejudices.  To prove the point they have laid down the ground rules for participation in the march and produced this manifesto: There are certain things that we accept as facts with no alternatives. The Earth is becoming warmer due to human action. The diversity of life arose by evolution. Politicians who devalue expertise risk making decisions that do not reflect reality and must be held accountable. An American government that ignores science to pursue ideological agendas endangers the world.

Let’s take a look at that manifesto. There are certain things that we accept as facts with no alternatives. What happened to scientific curiosity? Is science ever settled? Do they mean there is nothing new to discover?

The Earth is becoming warmer due to human action. Well, for once I agree. We are returning CO2 to the atmosphere in increasing amount, and that is good. If nothing else changed, the logarithmic temperature increase with increased CO2 levels would cause the earth to warm up by 0.9C for a doubling of CO2, more if there is a gain in the system, less if there is negative feedback. The gain factors are mostly due to increased evaporation from warmer oceans, the negative feedback is supplied mostly through increased clouds, coming from increased absolute humidity. (I realise there are many other factors affecting climate, but this is a start, science is by no means settled). What is observed is that the earth is getting greener, and the increased CO2 from 280 PPM to 405 PPM makes the earth able to feed another two billion people without starving, not to mention plants and animals, and also use less water in doing so. Check the figure:increaseThe growth without added fertilizers 11%, extrapolated from the beginning of burning fossil fuels to now the increase is about 42%. This is a transfer of wealth from areas burning the fuel to agricultural areas, mostly in developing countries.

The diversity of life arose by evolution. Now that is a limiting statement. While there is great evidence for adaption, a valid scientific explanation for evolution simply is not credible, apart from intelligent design. The math is not there for another explanation, the DNA code is too complicated and complete including repair codes, start and stop codes to induce aging, and with codes to allow for future adaption already built in!

Politicians who devalue expertise risk making decisions that do not reflect reality and must be held accountable. The number of guilty politicians are too numerous to count.

An American government that ignores science to pursue ideological agendas endangers the world. Agree. No government exemplified this more than the Obama Government.  The Trump administration will restore balance in science, no longer excel in nonsense like this from Charles Bolden  “When I became the NASA administrator — or before I became the NASA administrator — he (Obama) charged me with three things. One was he wanted me to help re-inspire children to want to get into science and math, he wanted me to expand our international relationships, and third, and perhaps foremost, he wanted me to find a way to reach out to the Muslim world and engage much more with dominantly Muslim nations to help them feel good about their historic contribution to science … and math and engineering,”