July 24: Read through the Holy Bible in a year.

Romans 11. Israel’s Rejection is not total, but because of their rejection of the Gospel, salvation has come to the Gentiles. Israel’s Rejection is not fatal, all Israel will be saved according to Scripture. The chapter ends with a Doxology, if you are in the habit of memorizing Scripture, this would be a good passage to memorize

Job 4. Job’s friend Eliphaz was first to speak: Job has sinned –

July 23: Read through the Holy Bible in a year.

Romans 10. Paul claimed that Israel too needs the Gospel, “ if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved.” It is true in the Gospel, that “there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek,” but Israel rejected the Gospel.

Job 2. Satan Attacked Job’s Health, and then Job was visited by three friends, keeping him company for a week without saying a word.

Job 3. Job deplored his birth speaking to his his three friends, and they still kept quiet.

July 22: Read through the Holy Bible in a year.

Romans 9. After the glorious chapter 8 Paul turned his attention to  Israel and their rejection of Christ, they are after all God’s Sovereign Choice and the Children of Promise. God administers justice as he seed fit: “As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated,” and Israel’s unbelief was “Because they sought it not by faith, but as it were by the works of the law. For they stumbled at that stumblingstone; As it is written, Behold, I lay in Sion a stumblingstone and rock of offence: and whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed.

Job 1. This is the oldest book in the Bible and predates even the Pentateuch. It is written in old Aramaic. Job and his Family lived in in Uz, righteous before God. Satan attacked Job’s Character and as a result Job lost his property and his children.

Apocalypse in China. Two dams in inner Mongolia burst! Like catastrophic flooding in Europe, blame climate change first!

Two dams collapsed in the Hulunbuir proince on Sunday, July 18.

6,660 people were affected; 53,800 acres of farmland was flooded; 22 bridges, 124 culverts, and 15.6 kilometres of highway were destroyed….Casualties are unknown.

On July 20 was reported heavy rains in the Henan province caused flooding of the Yellow river and its tributaries. The yellow river normally does not even reach the ocean for 3 months of the year!

In Europe flooding occurred in at least 7 countries. It started with heavy rains in the beginning of July, some areas received 4 inches of rain, over three times the normal rainfall for all of July, then on July 14 fell another 4 inches. The dams were already full to the brim, so many areas were flooded.

Here is a very good summary of the events in Europe, and as you expected, climate change is blamed.

What did he mean by “We are now officially in the era of climate change.”

Europe and China have always had floods. In fact, casualties have gone down substantially in the last hundred and fifty years. Here is a chart from Europe:

Dams has always been important since the beginning of industrialization, first as water wheels to provide power, then with electricity the rivers were really exploited to provide hydroelectric power. Flood control was also important, and there is a trade-off, which is more important, electric power or flood prevention? To maximize electric output you want to have the dams filled to the brim at all times, for flood control you want to have the dams at half full, to always be ready to absorb the next rain. The problem is that in so doing the dams only produce 70% of maximum energy. To complicate matters, the last ten years there has been a large investment in wind and solar energy, and when the wind doesn’t blow and the sun doesn’t shine, the hydro-electric power storage will have to fill in the gaps, if we are to have any clean energy at all times.

This was the case in Europe in July. The early rains had filled up the dams to within a foot of maximum, and there had not been any controlled releases to prepare for the additional rains expected. Bureaucrats hate to do controlled releases, they see billions of Kilowatt hours go to waste. The bureaucracy failed, these decisions must be made with no delay, but if politicians rather than technically competent people are to make the decisions, the time delays inherent in any bureaucracy will make disasters like these happen again and again.

July 21: Read through the Holy Bible in a year.

Romans 8:28-39. This is my favorite chapter in all the Bible, and is far too important for my feeble comments. Read it together with all the Old Testament references, let them serve as the commentary; then read it again. Let it sink in, then pray with thanksgiving. 

Proverbs 11. The list of Solomon’s Proverbs is many chapters long.

Psalm 62, of David. David, as always claimed God to be his rock and salvation, even when surrounded by false and evil men, he would not be moved. All power belongs to God.

July 20: Read through the Holy Bible in a year.

Romans 8:1-27. This is my favorite chapter in all the Bible, and is far too important for my feeble comments. Read it together with all the Old Testament references, let them serve as the commentary; then read it again. Let it sink in, then pray with thanksgiving.

Esther 8. With Haman out of the way, the Jews were still in peril, since the edict of the king could not be changed, so Esther pleaded again to the king and a new edict was proclaimed, the the Jews had every right to defend themselves and strike back, and so Esther saved the Jews.

Esther9. The Jews triumphed, and the first Purim was celebrated.

Esther 10. Epilogue about the greatness of Mordecai.

The Transcontinental Aqueduct; Cost estimates.

To begin cost estimates, the model used is the cost for the Arizona central project. The waterway was constructed 1974 to 1993 at a cost of 4.7 billion dollars. In 2021 dollars that would be about 12.8 billion. The cost for the canal would be about 12 billion and 800 million for the pumping stations. The average size of the aqueduct in its beginning is 80 feet across the top and 24 feet across the bottom and the water is 16.5 feet deep. The concrete is 3.5 inches thick and, in some areas, it is reinforced with steel rebars. It is 336 miles long from Lake Havasu City to Tucson with a total lift of over 2,900 feet. The capacity starts out at over 2.2 million acte-ft per year, diminishing as the drop-off point occurs, and the total pumping of 1.4 million acre feet of water is lifted by up to 2,900 feet by 14 pumping stations using 2,500 GWh of electricity each year. The pumping stations have a total pumping capacity of 240 MW.

The transcontinental aqueduct is much bigger: The The average size of the aqueduct in its beginning is 220 feet across the top and 65 feet across the bottom and the water is 44 feet deep. The concrete is 4.5 inches thick and, in some areas, it is reinforced with steel rebars. The concrete used is 16,500 cu yd per mile. It will cost about five times as much per mile as the ACP, so the total cost for the Transcontinental Aqueduct will be (12x 5 : 336 x 1505) = 268 billion dollars.

The cost of building the dams are estimated at $1 billion per dam. There are 15 dams, of which 11 must be built before aqueduct is operational at half capacity.

There is a total of 29.1 GW of pumped power and 3.8 GW of base power generated. To get the aqueduct operational at 7.5 MAF/year it requires 16.5 GW of energy. Pumping cost capital is about $ 1.30 per watt, so the minimum pumping capital cost is 21.5 Billion dollars. When the aqueduct is fully built up the capital cost for pumping includes 23.3 GW of peak power, raising the cost to $ 52 Billion’

The Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor chosen is a 100 MW unit. The reactor core assembly is small enough so it can be produced on an assembly line and delivered on truck. It can be built for $ 230 million. To complete the installation costs another # 30 million per unit. The aqueduct needs 146 for minimum flow, and another 145 when it is fully built out. The initial capital cost for grid access and minimum flow is $38 billion, double that when fully built out.

To sum it up,the capital cost for a flow of 7.5 MAF is (268 +21.5 + 38) = 327.5 billion dollars. At a flow of 15.5 MAF the cost is 387 billion. To add another 22.1 GW of 5 hour peak power per day add 5 billions for 4 dams and tunnels and 28 billion for pumps = 33 billion dollars

July 19: Read through the Holy Bible in a year.

Romans 7. Thanks to the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, we are free from the Law when we belong to Him. Yet, we struggle with sin; “ For that which I do I allow not: for what I would, that do I not; but what I hate, that do I.” The chapter ends up with “ O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death? I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then with the mind I myself serve the law of God; but with the flesh the law of sin.” It will all make sense in chapter 8.

Esther 5. Esther prepared for a banquet with only her, the King and Haman in attendance. Meanwhile Haman’s rage against Mordecai was so great that he had built a seventy-five feet high gallows, on which to hang Mordecai.

Esther 6. As it so happened, the king had a case of insomnia. To become drowsy he had the annals read to him, which told that Mordecai had averted a coup. During the banquet the king wanted to honor somebody, and rather than Haman, Mordecai was honored.

Esther7. And so it was, Haman was hanged on the gallows he had built for Mordecai.

Psalm 61, of David. As so often happened, David was in trouble and cried out to God, proclaiming his trust in God, singing praises.

July 18: Read through the Holy Bible in a year.

Romans 6. The three most important truths are:  “Reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord.” “But now being made free from sin, and become servants to God, ye have your fruit unto holiness, and the end everlasting life.“ and “For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.” It is a fantastic chapter, read it and meditate.

Esther 2. The search for a new queen was on and Esther became the new queen. Mordecai, Esther’s cousin, uncovered a conspiracy against the king.

Esther3. Enter Haman, an Agagite. (There was great animosity between the Agagites and the Jews since the time of king Saul.) He was great in the kingdom, and everybody bowed down to him – except Mordecai. This enraged Haman, so he offered 750 tons of silver to the king’s treasury for being allowed to kill all Jews. Fair enough, deal signed and sealed, (and the king’s seal cannot be undone.)

Esther 4. Mordecai persuaded Esther to risk her life to save the Jews, and Esther’s response was “If I perish, I perish”.

The Transcontinental Aqueduct. Leg 12: San Carlos Lake to the Colorado river following the Gila river, a distance of 280 miles. (Updated)

Stage 12 is a true delivery of water on demand aqueduct. The San Carlos lake has a storage capacity of a million acre-ft, the ideal buffer from the peak power demand driven uphill stages to the major delivery stage. San Carlos lake is now mostly empty, but will be normally filled to 85% of capacity, slightly less in advance of the winter snow melt. The Lake would look like this:

San Carlos lake, about half full

The Coolidge dam is now decommissioned, the lake is too often empty and the dam suffered damage in the power plant and it was no longer economical to produce power. The retrofitted dam will have a power generation capacity of up to 19,000 cfs the top of the dam is at 2535 ft, the typical water level is at 2500 ft and the drop is 215 feet, giving a maximum power output of 325 MW.

Coolidge dam before rebuilding

From there the stream follows the Gila River all the way to the Colorado River with the following dropoffs:

Where the Arizona central project waterway crosses the Gila river it will deliver up to 500 cfs to Tucson

Where the Gila river meets the Salt river it can deliver up to 1,500 cfs to the Phoenix-Scottsdale metropolitan area.

To the Martinez lake it can deliver up to 15,155 cfs, the design capacity of the All American canal. This will of course be nearly always far less, dependent on the need for water for irrigation, but we dimension the aqueduct to accomodate maximum flow. The Martinez lake is puny, and would easily be overwhelmed by surges in the water flow. To accommodate this, the Senator Wash Reservoir will have to be upgraded to be able to pump up or down at least twice as much water as is it present capacity. Lake Martinez is at about 180 feet elevation, and Senator Wash Reservoir is at a maximum elevation of 240 feet.

The Martinez lake and the Senator Wash Reservoir.

The rest of the Transcontinental Aqueduct empties out where the Gila river joins the remainder of the Colorado river a few miles downstream. It will be able to carry up to 6, 000 cfs of water to accommodate the needs of Mexico and also provide a modest amount of water to assure the Colorado river again reaches the ocean, maybe restoring some shrimp fishing in the ocean.

The 1944 water treaty with Mexico provides Mexico with 1.5 million acre-ft per year, more or less dependent of drought or surplus. It will be increased only on condition that when the Transcontinental aqueduct is finished, the New River in Mexicali will be cut off at the border, and Mexico will have to do their own complete waste water treatment.

There will be water allocated to the Salton Sea. Proposed will be the world’s largest Lithium mine, mining the deep brine, rich in Lithium. (about 40% of the world supply according to one estimate). This requires water, and as a minimum to allow mining in the Salton Sea the water needs to be cleaned. This requires further investigation, but the area around the Salton Sea is maybe the most unhealthy in the United States.

The maximum power generating drop during this last leg will be (2500 – 190 – 2.2X 280) = 1694 feet. With an average flow of 14,000 cfs this will generate 1.9 GW of power, but the realized power output will be determined by the actual water demands.