Genesis 15, God’s land covenant with Abram.

This is now the fourth name of God introduced. NIV translates it “Sovereign GOD”

The normal way of sealing a covenant is that both parties to the covenant pass between the halves of the sacrifice, as is described in Jeremiah:

The smoking oven and the burning torch symbolize God passing between the pieces. The most important thing to realize is that God walks through alone. Normally, both parties of the covenant would walk through together, showing that they both had responsibilities to keep in order to maintain the covenant. But when God walks through alone, He shows Abram that there is absolutely nothing Abram or his descendants have to do in order for God to keep this covenant.

It is a one sided covenant. God takes all the responsibility for fulfilling it upon Himself. No matter what Abram does or doesn’t do from this point on, God will keep His promise. No matter what Israel has or has not done in history, God will keep His promise. (


Genesis 11, the tower of Babel

One candidate for the location of the tower of Babel is the tower in Babylon, located in the middle of the walled city:

This is one suggestion what the tower used to look like.

And Babylon is being restored, complete with the Ishtar gate.

To finance the building of the tower the oldest profession did its part. The temple of Ishtar was full of temple prostitutes, and to organize it more effectively the use of money in the form of coins was first used in Babylon as payment for transactions.

Ishtar is having a resurgence in modern western culture, promoting whatever was going on in old Babylon. There is nothing new under the sun.

This did end a predictable way

In the genealogy of Shem the Septuagint accord differs from Masoretic text. I do not know why, except that the Greek Septuagint translation of the Hebrew original seems to be more complete.

The timeline from Adam in table form:

After the flood people did not live as long. Could sun exposure have something to do with it? Or was it viruses?  Anyhow, here is the